Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the
cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS and its lipid A moiety
stimulate cells of the innate immune system by the Toll-like receptor 4
(TLR4), a member of the Toll-like receptor protein family, which
recognizes common pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMPs).
The product is soluble in water (5 mg/ml) or cell culture medium
(1 mg/ml) yielding a hazy, faint yellow solution. A more concentrated,
though still hazy, solution (20 mg/ml) has been achieved in aqueous
saline after vortexing and warming to 70-80 oC.
Lipopolysaccharides are molecules that form micelles in every solvent.
Hazy solutions are observed in water and phosphate buffered saline.
Organic solvents do not give clearer solutions. Methanol yields a turbid
suspension with floaters, while water yields a homogeneously hazy
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are localized in the outer layer of
the membrane and are, in noncapsulated strains, exposed on the cell
surface. They contribute to the integrity of the outer membrane, and
protect the cell against the action of bile salts and lipophilic
This product is TCA extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype 10. The source strain is ATCC 27316.